The table below shows the complete list of mammal species classed as extinct since 1500 AD (the past 500 years). Subspecies are included at the end of the table. The data comes from the 2008 Red List of threatened species maintained by the World Conservation Union — also known as the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN). It’s possible that other mammal species became extinct during that period without their disappearance having been recorded. The rate of extinction for all animals has increased in recent centuries.

There are 247 Critically Endangered mammals in the 2008 database — 188 mammal species and 59 subspecies. Just one example is the Baiji dolphin, or Yangtze river dolphin (Lipotes vexillifer). The database entry states: “The preponderance of evidence indicates that the baiji is very close to extinction or may already be extinct.” Critically Endangered species of any taxonomic group can be tagged as “Possibly Extinct” or “Possibly Extinct in the Wild.”

Click on the scientific names to go to the database entries for the species.

Mammals Extinct after 1500 AD
# Scientific name
[IUCN database links]
Common name
 1 Bettongia pusilla Nullarbor Dwarf Bettong
 2 Boromys offella Oriente Cave Rat
 3 Boromys torrei Torre’s Cave Rat
 4 Bos primigenius Auroch
 5 Brotomys voratus Hispaniolan Edible Rat
 6 Caloprymnus campestris Desert Rat Kangaroo
 7 Chaeropus ecaudatus Pig-footed Bandicoot
 8 Conilurus albipes White-footed Rabbit-rat
 9 Coryphomys buehleri Buhler’s Coryphomys
10 Cryptonanus ignitus Red-bellied Gracile Mouse Opossum
11 Cryptoprocta spelea Giant Fossa
12 Cuscomys oblativa
13 Desmodus draculae Giant Vampire Bat
14 Dusicyon australis Falkland Island Wolf
15 Gazella bilkis Queen Of Sheba’s Gazelle
16 Gazella saudiya Saudi Gazelle
17 Geocapromys columbianus Cuban Coney
18 Geocapromys thoracatus Little Swan Island Hutia
19 Heteropsomys insulans Insular Cave Rat
20 Hexolobodon phenax Imposter Hutia
21 Hippopotamus lemerlei Madagascan Dwarf Hippopotamus
22 Hippopotamus madagascariensis Madagascan Pygmy Hippo
23 Hippotragus leucophaeus Bluebuck
24 Hydrodamalis gigas Steller’s Sea Cow
25 Isolobodon montanus Montane Hutia
26 Isolobodon portoricensis Puerto Rican Hutia
27 Juscelinomys candango Candango Mouse
28 Lagorchestes asomatus Central Hare Wallaby
29 Lagorchestes leporides Eastern Hare Wallaby
30 Lagostomus crassus
31 Macropus greyi Toolache Wallaby
32 Macrotis leucura Lesser Bilby
33 Megalomys desmarestii Desmarest’s Pilorie
34 Megalomys luciae Santa Lucian Pilorie
35 Megaoryzomys curioi Galapágos Giant Rat
36 Monachus tropicalis Caribbean Monk Seal
37 Neotoma anthonyi Anthony’s Woodrat
38 Neotoma bunkeri Bunkers Woodrat
39 Neotoma martinensis San Martin Island Woodrat
40 Neovison macrodon Sea Mink
41 Nesophontes edithae Puerto Rican Nesophontes
42 Nesophontes hypomicrus Atalaye Nesophontes
43 Nesophontes major
44 Nesophontes micrus Western Cuban Nesophontes
45 Nesophontes paramicrus St. Michel Nesophontes
46 Nesophontes zamicrus Haitian Nesophontes
47 Nesoryzomys darwini Darwin’s Galapagos Mouse
48 Nesoryzomys indefessus Indefatigable Galapagos Mouse
49 Noronhomys vespuccii
50 Notomys amplus Short-tailed Hopping Mouse
51 Notomys longicaudatus Long-tailed Hopping Mouse
52 Notomys macrotis Big-eared Hopping Mouse
53 Notomys mordax Darling Downs Hopping Mouse
54 Oligoryzomys victus St. Vincent Pygmy Rice Rat
55 Onychogalea lunata Crescent Nailtail Wallaby
56 Oryzomys antillarum Jamaican Rice Rat
57 Oryzomys nelsoni Tres Marias Island Rice Rat
58 Palaeopropithecus ingens Large Sloth Lemur
59 Perameles eremiana Desert Bandicoot
60 Peromyscus pembertoni Pemberton’s Deer Mouse
61 Plagiodontia ipnaeum Samana Hutia
62 Potorous platyops Broad-faced Potoroo
63 Prolagus sardus Sardinian Pika
64 Pseudomys glaucus Blue-grey Mouse
65 Pseudomys gouldii Gould’s Mouse
66 Pteropus brunneus Percy Island Flying Fox
67 Pteropus pilosus Large Palau Flying Fox
68 Pteropus subniger Lesser Mascarene Flying-fox
69 Pteropus tokudae Guam Flying Fox
70 Rattus macleari Maclear’s Rat
71 Rattus nativitatis Bulldog Rat
72 Rucervus schomburgki Schomburgk’s Deer
73 Solenodon marcanoi Marcano’s Solenodon
74 Thylacinus cynocephalus Thylacine (Tasmanian wolf)
75 Xenothrix mcgregori Jamaican Monkey
76 Zalophus japonicus Japanese Sea Lion
Mammal subspecies extinctions
 1 Alcelaphus buselaphus ssp. buselaphus Bubal Hartebeest
 2 Equus quagga ssp. quagga Quagga
 3 Kobus leche ssp. robertsi Roberts’ Lechwe
 4 Ourebia ourebi ssp. kenyae Kenya Oribi
 5 Panthera tigris ssp. balica Bali Tiger
 6 Panthera tigris ssp. sondaica Javan Tiger
 7 Panthera tigris ssp. virgata Caspian Tiger
Extinct in the Wild
 1 Elaphurus davidianus Père David’s Deer
 2 Oryx dammah Scimitar-horned Oryx

Regionally extinct subspecies:

The table below shows four regionally extinct mammals which are often described as extinct ‘species’ — 2 varieties of lion and 2 varieties of brown bear. Some zoos believe they have descendants of Cape lions and Barbary lions in their present day collections. Further information about lion species is available at the University of Michigan’s Animal Diversity website.

Regionally Extinct Varieties
Scientific name Species name Region Name of extinct variant
Panthera leo African lion Morocco Barbary lion
South Africa Cape lion
Ursus arctos Brown bear Morocco Atlas bear
Mexico Mexican grizzly bear

When did they die out?

The pie chart on the right is a rough guide only. There are many species in the list with no recorded sightings since they were first described. Others are only known from skeletal remains and haven’t been seen alive. For example, the database entry for Hippopotamus lemerlei says: “Madagascan hippopotami may have survived until recent times … notably on the basis of local oral tradition…” Species first described in the late 19th century and never seen again have been divided between the 19th and 20th centuries in the pie chart.